Scores (out of 10)


Fair Conditions

2.1: Orcas added a new feature to its applications for tutors to express problems with clients. The platform will now be mitigating the risks of lone working by providing adequate support.

2.1: Breadfast added to its starter kits additional information on “the Last Mile team” and ways for workers to reach out to this group. The Last Mile team can provide support to workers who seek help with issues related to safety.

Fair Contracts

3.1: Mrsool updated the company’s governing law to Egyptian law in their terms and conditions and will be sharing the news with their workers in early 2023.

3.1: Breadfast has added a data protection policy in its hiring link.

3.1: Orcas reworded a statement regarding the use of personal data to make it more worker-friendly.

Fair Management

4.2: Breadfast added an anti-discrimination policy in its hiring link.

4.2: Mrsool added an anti-discrimination policy to its updated terms and conditions.

4.2: Filkhedma added in its recruitment posts an explicit welcome and call for people with disabilities.

Fair Representation

5.1: Orcas added one of the tutors on the platform as a moderator on the Facebook group. It announced this new development to all its tutors and ensured that they can reach out without any fear of repercussion while retaining their anonymity.

5.1: Orcas issued a statement on its willingness to recognize a trade union and engage in collective bargaining. The statement can be found on their website and tutor’s kit.

Scores (out of 10)


Fair management

In consultation with the Fairwork Egypt team, two platforms (FilKhedma and Orcas) have implemented an anti-discrimination policy. However, only FilKhedma was able to score a point for ensuring equity in the management process, as it takes meaningful steps to be inclusive of women. Orcas was unable to score the point since there was no evidence presented of steps taken for inclusivity, in addition to lack of an appeals process.

Fair contracts

As for the data management policy, after discussions with the Fairwork Egypt team, the company has agreed to implement a data management policy that satisfies the requirements for point 2.1. FilKhedma’s data management policy will follow the guidelines set forth by the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

Fairwork Egypt

Workers in Egypt are increasingly turning to the platform economy for easier access and greater flexibility in terms of when and how they work. At the same time, workers’ livelihoods earned from platform work have been affected by soaring inflation and the devaluation of the Egyptian pound over the last year.

The second round of Fairwork ratings for Egypt evaluates 10 digital labour platforms according to five principles of fair work: Breadfast, Elmenus, Filkhedma, inDrive, Mrsool, Orcas, Swvl, Talabat, Taskty, and Uber. The report highlights both the positive developments and the challenges to decent and fair work standards represented by digital labour platforms, including issues faced by platform workers in light of surging inflation rates and rising unemployment. Our research shows that while platform work has enabled workers to generate new income, or supplement already existing ones, its impact has been diminished as a result of rising inflation and the substantial increase in the cost of living.

Since last year, the Fairwork Egypt team’s research has had a positive impact on working conditions in the platforms under study. Dialogue with platforms has resulted in an increased willingness of many of them to improve working conditions for their workers, with four platforms improving their score since last year. The impact of this year’s research has been remarkable; examples include Breadfast’s adoption of a documented data protection policy, and Breadfast’s and Mrsool’s adoption of a documented anti-discrimination policy.

I am pleased to see how our work in  collaboration with different stakeholders – platform workers, managers, civil society and policymakers – contributes towards the continuous betterment of working conditions, promoting entrepreneurship, good governance, and inclusive policy making in Egypt.

Nagla Rizk
Professor of Economics at AUC and Founding Director of A2K4D

Nagla Rizk


Webinar: Fairwork Egypt Ratings 2021 Report Launch